Wheat seed contamination with seed-borne diseases in cold climatic zone of Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute (SPCRI), Karaj, Iran.


In order to evaluate the informal wheat seed contamination with seed-borne
diseases, two most important provinces (East Azarbaijan and Khorasan Razavi) for
wheat production were selected in cold region of Iran in 2008-2009 crop seasons
and ten different locations (city or village) were considered in each province and
ten informal seed farmers were selected randomly. A seed sample (1 kg) was taken
from planting source of each farmer. Different analysis including purity,
germination and seed health (head blight, common bunt and loose smut disease)
tests carried out on seed samples according to ISTA rules. Fusarium graminearum
was identified as the main disease in provinces. Blotter test showed significant
differences (P<0.05) among the towns but there was no meaningful difference
between provinces. Washing test for T. caries showed significant difference
between the two provinces (P<0.1) but there was no meaningful difference among
towns in each province. Furthermore there was significant difference between and
among provinces and towns with respect to T. leavis infection. Also the data
showed clear dispersal of these two species (T. caries and T. leavis). Negative and
high significant correlation was observed between U. tritici and germination. So
the precision study of seed borne disease in different areas of the country for
producing healthy seed is recommended.