Wheat and barley seed system in Syria: How diverse are wheat and barley varieties and landraces from farmer’s fields?

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Seed Section, ICARDA, P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria

2 Center for Crop Systems Analysis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

3 Harspit 10, 8493KB, Terherne, the Netherlands.


"> The present study described the diversity of wheat and barley varieties and
landraces available in farmer’s fields in Syria using different indicators. Analysis
of spatial and temporal diversity and coefficient of parentage along with
measurements of agronomic and morphological traits were employed to explain the
diversity of wheat and barley varieties or landraces grown by farmers in Syria.
Farm level surveys showed low spatial diversity of wheat and barley where only a
few dominant varieties occupied a large proportion of wheat and barley areas. The
five top wheat varieties (ACSAD 65, Cham 1, Cham3, Lahan and Cham 6)
occupied 81% of the wheat area and were grown by 78% of the sample farmers. In
case of barley one single landrace was grown in almost the entire survey area in
north eastern Syria. The weighted average age of wheat varieties was highest with
an average of 10.8 years showing low temporal diversity by farmers. In Syria bread
wheat showed lower average diversity and weighted diversity than durum wheat.
Variance component analysis showed significant variations for desirable
agronomic characters such as plant height, grain yield and yield components
(kernels per spike-1, seed weight) among wheat and barley varieties and landraces.
The principal component analysis explained the variations that existed among
modern varieties and landraces. Cluster analysis based on agronomic and
morphological traits grouped the modern varieties and landraces into separate
clusters. The variation that existed among the landraces showed broad
opportunities for using in plant breeding programs to develop varieties suitable for different agro-ecological zones. To date large areas previously grown to traditional
varieties and landraces are now increasingly replaced by contiguous expanse of
land planted to uniform modern bread and durum wheat varieties and are grown by
large number of farmers. Apart from the landraces, the wild relatives and
progenitors of both wheat and barley are being threatened by extinction in the
center of origin.